Friday, May 22, 2020
Essay One Ashlie Clark U.S. History Prof. Kearney Due: September 7th, 2017 The First U.S. President to Ever be Assassinated Many people view Abraham Lincoln as the best president our country has ever had and I for one, agree. Lincoln dedicated his life to this country, spending most of his political life campaigning against slavery, letting the country know that he was against everything it stood for. However, upon Abraham Lincolns inauguration, our nation divided itself. The election signaled the secession of seven southern states which lead to the creation of the Confederate States followed by the Civil War. As the war came close to the end in 1865, there was an uproar among southerners who blamed Lincoln for ruining their nation byÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Abraham LincolnsÃ¢â¬â¢ election was such a heavily debated topic through the nation that Lincoln became an obvious political target for Southern sympathizers. Lincoln even reportedly had a spot on his desk labeled Ã¢â¬Å"assassinationÃ¢â¬ that was designated for death threats that came in thr ough the mail. Therefore, Abraham Lincoln was assigned a body guard, however this was nowhere near the kind of security our presidents have in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. During Abraham Lincolns pre-inaugural tour from Springfield to Washington, there was an incident which took place towards the end of the tour. Lincoln was informed by several different people that there was a plan in place to ambush and assassinate him in Baltimore, Maryland (John Wilkes BoothsÃ¢â¬â¢ hometown). This plan was supposed to take place before he had the chance to make it to Washington to be elected. Lincoln decided to take the advice of his friends, even though he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t completely sure that there really was a plan to murder him, and chose not to take the planned route. Instead, he decided to take an alternate route that went around Baltimore rather than through it, at night, while wearing a disguise. Alternating his course, put him in Washington early the following morning. However, after doing this, Lincoln felt rather embarrassed that he had to hide in the shadows and dodge people in order to stay safe. He pondered these events for quite some time and eventual ly vowed to himself that he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hide from his enemies again. AsShow MoreRelatedEssay On John Wilkes Booth1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat John Wilkes Booth was the man who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, but not everyone knows John Wilkes BoothÃ¢â¬â¢s take on it. Like Why did he do it? Who were his accomplices? What happened after he did it? Well that is was this paper is about. John Wilkes Booth was born on May 10, 1838 in the state of near Bel Air, Maryland (Encyclopedia Britannica 2017). He was the second youngest of 10 children, and was the son of the actor Junius Brutus Booth (Encyclopedia Britannica 2017). Booth Ã¢â¬Å"showedRead MoreEssay on John Wilkes Booth1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJohn Wilkes Booth John Wilkes Booth ( A man with a mission) is known as killing one of our U . S presidents, Abraham Lincoln. How did he do it when did he do it and where did he do it at? Lincoln helping abolish slavery state by state to try to stop the civil war. John Wilkes Booth as he was known as a professional actor before the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Today his life is often forgotten and is also overlooked in schools around the world John Wilkes Booth was born on May 10Read MorePresident Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth Essay examples1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEmily: (In front of room at podium) Good Evening. Today is Friday April 14, 1865 and I am here in studio 4 with breaking news. This evening at FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Theater in Washington President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth, who thinks he is helping the south in this act, but will that be the truth? In a moment we will go to reporter Krayton Schnepf who is on the scene, but until then lets get some background information on Abe. Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in Hardin County, KentuckyRead MoreCompare and Contrast Lincoln And Jfk Essay1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdebate he expressed his opinion that the nation would either be all slavery or all free, A house divided against itself cannot stand. In 1860, Lincoln ran for president against Northern Democrat Douglas, Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. He defeated the three, declaring him the sixteenth president of the United States of America. Lincoln was a Republican who was directly concerned with Civil Rights. He was not an abolitionist, but was determinedRead MoreLife And Impact On The Civil War And Slavery1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfit to be president and that they should still be able to own slaves, among these people was a well known actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth. When Booth found out that the President would be attending the play Our American Cousin, he and a few other conspirators came up with a plan to assassinate the president, vice president, and secretary of state. At around 10:15 Booth snuck into the private area and shot President Lincoln in the head and stabbed officer Henry Rathbone, who was attending theRead MoreKilling Lincoln Is Acclaimed As `` Shocking, And A Historical Thriller1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEssay Killing Lincoln is acclaimed as Ã¢â¬Å"shockingÃ¢â¬ and a Ã¢â¬Å"historical thriller.Ã¢â¬ It makes the reader question, Ã¢â¬Å"Is it really true?Ã¢â¬ with every turning page. Bill OÃ¢â¬â¢Reilly claims that everything mentioned is true and Ã¢â¬Å"unsanitized,Ã¢â¬ so a whole new story is opened to the audience, such as Booth being funded by the Confederate states and the Booth family being closely related to the Lincoln family. However, if everything is true, the question still remains: What is the most significant truth? Many peopleRead MoreCompare Contrast: Lincoln and Jfk1762 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdebate he expressed his opinion that the nation would either be all slavery or all free, A house divided against itself cannot stand. In 1860, Lincoln ran for president against Northern Democrat Douglas, Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge, and Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. He defeated the three, declaring him the sixteenth president of the United States of America. Lincoln was a Republican who was directly concerned with Civil Rights. He was not an abolitionist, but was determinedRead MoreIÃ¢â¬â¢M Doing This Essay On Which Of The Presidents We Think1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIÃ¢â¬â¢m doing this essay on which of the presidents we think are either the best or the worst. Some of the presidents that we think are the best are Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, John F. Kennedy, Teddy Roosevelt, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Lyndon B Johnson, Woodrow Wilson, Thomas Jefferson, Ronald Reagan. While some of the presidents I think are the worst are George W. Bush, Zachary Taylor, Ulysses S. Grant, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, William Henry Harrison, Franklin PierceRead MoreThe Assassination Of The War And Formation Of Civil Rights1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinstabilities in a country especially when key personalities such as heads of states are the victims. In this essay, we shall discuss some of the major assassinations which oc curred in history. These personalities include John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Abraham Lincoln, Julius Caesar and Robert F. Kennedy. John Fitzgerald Kennedy At the time of his assassination on November 22nd 1963, John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th sitting President of the United States. During his Presidency, manyRead MoreJiayun1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand was chosen as the partys backup candidate for president after Senator William H. Seward of New York. He had an absolute success on passing out William H. Seward. In the 1860 election, he won by 180 electoral votes against John C. Breckinridge from Southern Democratic, John Bell from Constitutional Union Party and Stephen A. Douglas from Democratic, and became the 16th president of the United States. Because of his strong mind against slavery, several Southern states seceded from Union and formed
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The idea, concept, and practices of religion have never really been something that is of importance to me during my life. For the longest time I did not identify as any certain or specific religion and when asked I would simply state how I was not a religious person. It was not until high school when I discovered the religion of Agnosticism. In our English class we had to research different religions and our group received Agnosticism. Before then I had never heard of that religion, but after learning about Agnosticism it pretty much summed up how I feel and what I believe about God and religion. Basically Agnosticism entails that the person believes that the existence of God is uncertain and claims neither a faith nor a disbelief in God. I feel like this religion perfectly sums up how I feel when it comes to my faith and ideas about God and just religion as a whole. Since I am not a religious type of person, the idea of me choosing another one that I would be a part of seems like a difficult task. When I do think about the various religions that I have studied, written, and read about during the course of this semester there is one that stands out to me. If I had to choose another religion to join instead of my own, I would join Buddhism because their fundamental principles and values are those that I can agree with and their ultimate purpose in life is something I can see myself believing in as well. To begin, in the Buddhist religion there are various principles andShow MoreRelatedBuddhism Is Considered A Religion Or A Philosophy961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbuddhism is considered a religion or a philosophy but I believe that it is both. According to (https://www.google.com/#q=buddhismBuddhism) is a non-theistic religion or philosophy that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism inhabits several traits that consider it a religion and a philosophy. There is not a clear d istinction that defines buddhism as one or the other. Some practices of Buddhism display faithRead MoreSocial Philosophy Of Confucianism1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmodels of family and public interactions and setting educational standards (Biography.com Editors 2017). Confucius died in 479 B.C., but Confucianism became the official imperial philosophy of China and its influence was significant during the Han, Tang and Song Dynasties (Biography.com Editors 2017). ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy and teachings started during the sixth century B.C. when the competing Chinese states destabilized the authority of the Zhou Empire, which was in rule for over 500 years (BiographyRead MoreHinduism Religion759 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswhat makes up the Hindu religion is Sanarana Dharma, which is also known as Hinduism, an alternative label that is preferred today. Hinduism is the traditional religion of India. Sanatan Dharma is one of the oldest religions known to mankind and Hinduisms religion is still in practice today. The spiritual expressions of Sanatana Dharma range from extreme asceticism to the extreme sensuality, from the heights of personal devotion to a deity to the heights of abstract philosophy (Fisher, M.P., 2005)Read MoreWorld Religion s Project Of Buddhism1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReligionÃ¢â¬â¢s Project Almost 6 percent of the world s population or 350 million people follow Buddhism. Although among them are varying controversies over whether or not Buddhism is a religion or a followed pathway. Buddhism, founded in the late 6th -century B.C.E , and practices the ideas of varying traditions, spiritual practices, and all beliefs focused on the ideas of Gautama or the Buddha. Gautama valued the beliefs and teachings of The Universal Truths and Four Noble Truths and successfully sharedRead MoreWhy Herd Culture Must Exist1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesobjective philosophy (dogmatic philosophy) are in a way similar. Both objective philosophy and herd culture force people to think the world is set up a certain way and it will never change. Objective philosophy claims we have access to universal trusts that are ahistorical and undoubtedly true at all time. Similarly, herd culture enforces expectations and rules which, based on herd ideology, are both ahistorical and true at all times and l ocations. Nietzsche claims that objective philosophy is closelyRead MoreSimilarities Between Hinduism And Buddhism995 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are more than seven billion people living across the world and about 19 major religions with about 270 subgroups. In many states and countries, there are two or more religions that are being practiced by its residents. Hinduism and Buddhism are two of the 19 major religions, that are widely practiced. Hinduism and Buddhism both have common origins, and share similar beliefs. Both Hinduism and Buddhism are religions that focus on the way to live and the different paths to gain enlightenment. ThereRead MoreThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World From the beginning of time, people all over the world have wondered where we come from, what our divine purpose in life is, and what we can expect after death. Questions about right and wrong, society and government, and nature and the cosmos, are some of the few wonders that ultimately created some of the earliest philosophies and religions, helping people find peace and explanation to the vast curiosity that still troubles us in modernRead MoreReligious Ideologies And Practices Behind Buddhism843 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinterested to learn about other cultures and ways of life. One particular religion that I did not consider myself well versed with was Buddhism. From my previous encounters with this religion, I had learned that its teachings embody the idea of karma and rebirth. As means to broaden my knowledge and learn more about the religious ideologies and practices behind Buddhism, I spoke with Professor Ann Burlein of the Religion and Philosophy Department. I had originally planned to attend Professor BurleinÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MorePhilosophy, Phenomenology And Comparative Approachs851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthere are six different approaches to religion. One approach is the psychological or individual aspect. Then there is the sociological approach which looks at group behavior. Then there is also the anthropological approach which is looks at societies, cultures and things of that nature. Lastly there is the philosophy, phenomenology and comparative approachs. The psychological approach to religion allows us to examine the individual. The psychology of religion is to understand the personal religiousRead MoreCritique Of Hegel s Philosophy Of Right957 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesis an active practice that involves gaining a knowledge and understanding of the past to improve its problems. A problem Marx sees in his time is the passive dogmatists that deal with abstractions such as idealism, or religion. He instead wants to offer a solution through the concrete: history and criticism, particularly that of religion, philosophy, and political economy. Beginning with MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s Contribution to the Critique of HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s Philosophy of Right, is the critique of religion. He states that
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(53) " it will produce will inevitably also be inaccurate\." DATA| INFORMATION| 123424331911| Your winning lottery ticket number| 140593| Your date of birth| Aaabbbccd| The grades you want in your GCSEs| Data and information Data, information knowledge Data Data consist of raw facts and figures Ã¢â¬â it does not have any meaning until it is processed and turned into something useful. It comes in many forms, the main ones being letters, numbers, images, symbols and sound. It is essential that data is available because it is the first step in creating meaningful information. We will write a custom essay sample on Data and Information or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ex; 123424331911; 140593; aaabbbccd, might not mean anything by themselves, but if it is processed and turned into (the chart below) they turn into something useful. Information Information is data that has beenÃ processedÃ in such a way as to beÃ meaningfulÃ to the person who receives it. INFORMATION = DATA + CONTEXT + MEANING INFORMATION = DATA + CONTEXT + MEANING Example of information DATA| 21041926| This has no meaning or context| CONTEXT| It is a British date| This allows us to register it as 21st April 1926. It still has no meaning and is therefore not information| MEANING| The Birth date of Queen Elizabeth II| This gives usa ll the elements required dor it to be called Ã¢â¬ËinformationÃ¢â¬â¢| Knowledge Knowledge is the ability of understanding the relationship between pieces of information and what to actually do with the information. Consider this scenario:Ã Person puts a finger into very hot water. Data gathered: Finger nerves sends pain data to the brain. Processing:Ã Brain considers the data and comes up withÃ¢â¬ ¦ Information: Painful finger means it is not in a good place. Action: Brain tells finger to remove itself from hot water. Knowledge: Sticking finger in hot water is a bad idea. Knowledge is having an understanding of the Ã¢â¬ËrulesÃ¢â¬â¢ Types of data Data can be stored in many different formats called Ã¢â¬Ëdata typesÃ¢â¬â¢. When setting up a database or spreadsheet, it is important that the correct data type is selected for each field. This is because the data type will determine what can be done with the data held in that field e. g. sorting, searching, calculations etc. It also can determine the format in which data is displayed e. g. date/time data type will allow you to pick the format of your choice, 14/05/08, 14 May 2008, 14th May 2008 etc. Finally, some data types are able to automatically validate the data being entered. e. g. : When you use a date/time data type then each date will be automatically checked to ensure that it can actually exist. For example, you would not be able to enter the date 31/02/2008 Ã¢â¬â it would au tomatically be rejected or return an error message. Types of data: * Text * Number * Boolean * Date/Time * Image Text A text data type can hold any letter, number, symbol or punctuation mark. It is sometimes referred to as Ã¢â¬ËalphanumericÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËstringÃ¢â¬â¢. The data can be pure text or a combination of text, numbers and symbols. * Name Joe Bloggs * Address 101, Any Street That Town TR34 9RT * Telephone Number 01234 567890 * Car Registration EA05 NXR * Car ColourBlue Telephone numbers need to be stored as a text/string data type because they often begin with a 0 and if they were stored as an integer then the leading zero would be discounted. You are never likely to want to add or multiply telephone numbers so there is no reason to store it as an integer data type. Number A number data type contains numbers. Example: * Weight in Kg12. 25, 19. 99, 199. 99 * Room measurement in metres14. 5 * Temperature (degrees Celsius)37. 5 Types of numbers: * Integers An integer stores whole numbers, either positive or negative. Integers however cannot store numbers with decimal places. * Real Your numerical data might need to be formatted with decimal places. This means it cannot be stored as an integer number. Instead it is known as aÃ Ã¢â¬ËrealÃ¢â¬â¢Ã number. You can specify the number of decimal places that you need. * Currency When you choose to format numerical data as currency then it will automatically be given two decimal places. However, you can choose to format currency with 0 dp because in some circumstances it would not be appropriate to display the pence. Think of an estate agent, they might sell a house for ? 295,000. It would look daft displayed as ? 295,000. 00. The currency data type also allows you to display the correct currency symbol such as ? or $. Boolean Boolean data holds one of two values, for example: * Yes/no * True/false * 0/1 A Boolean data type is used to answer questions where there are exactly two options, three options would mean it was no longer boolean data. Examples of questions where the responses would be stored as boolean data: * Has the heating been turned on? | Yes / No| * Are you employed? | Yes / No| Data / Time A date / time data type is used to store any data that is related to date or time. The tricky thing about date / time is that there are so many ways of showing it. And some countries have a different way of representing a date. For example * 9/4/94 in the USA means 4th Sept 94 * 9/4/94 in the UK means 9th April 94 By using a date /time data type, you can choose the format for how you want your data to be automatically displayed. For example: 14/05/08, 14 May 2008, 14th May 2008 etc. Another reason to use a date /time data type is that it can provide some basic validation on the data being entered. For example, you would not be able to enter the date 31/02/2008 Ã¢â¬â it would automatically be rejected or return an error message. Image Databases allow graphical images such as photographs to be stored as a data type. Images are binary files rather than text or numbers which is why a specific data type is required. Different file types such as . bmp, . jpg, . tiff can be stored Quality of information Things that affect the quality of information Accuracy If the data that you have collected is inaccurate then the information it will produce will inevitably also be inaccurate. You read "Data and Information" in category "Papers" Examples of how innacurate data occurs: Questionnaries and surveys * questions might be poorly worded so that users misunderstand them * there may not have been enough people interviewed for any conclusions to be reliable. For example, asking just two people is not likely to be enough Human mistakes * if people are collecting the data manually e. g. ecording answers to questionnaires, writing down instrument measurements, they might make a mistake. Calibration of instruments * if data is being collected automatically by sensors or other instruments then the results could be inaccurate if the instruments were not correctly calibrated at the start of the data collection period Examples of information which would be of little use if it w as inaccurate: Weather forecasts Many people check the weather forecast each day so that they can get an idea of what to wear. People have to have faith that the forecast will be reasonably accurate in order to make decisions. Supermarket prices When you go to a shop you probably know how much money you have to spend. You chek the prices of things you are buying on the shelves and will have an idea of how much it will cost by the time you have reached the till. If the peson entering the price details into the system has accidentally overpriced a couple of items, then this could mean that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough money to pay for shopping and have to put something back. Businesses Businesses have to keep accurate records of all the money coming in and all of the money being paid out. If the accountants make a mistake and dont accurately entera ll of the money received then it could look like the company has not made as much profit that year. Or they havent recorded all the bills so it seems that the company is making more money tan it really is Relevance In order for information to be useful it must be relevant to you. School You have a great deal of information to learn for each of your exams. Each time you go to lessons you probably take a lot of notes and perhaps are given handouts by your teachers to read. What about if your teachers decided to spend a few weeks teaching you about things that particularly interested them? What they had taught you might have been very interesting to both them and you but it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t relevant to what you needed at the time. You would find that you had spent a few very precious weeks learning about things that you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to know in order to pass your exam. Weather forecasts Whilst it might be interesting to find out what the weather is like in Florida or Melbourne today, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t really relevant to your everyday life. It wonÃ¢â¬â¢t help you decide whether you need to take an umbrella with you before you leave home in the UK. DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s appointments You might be feeling unwell and want to make an appointment to see your doctor. You phone up the local surgery to find out when the doctor has a spare appointment time. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be very useful or relevant to you if the receptionist told you how many appointment times were available to see the nurse. House prices Perhaps your parents might be thinking of moving house. The first thing they would do would be to speak to an estate agent to find out how much their house was worth. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be useful or relevant if the estate agent were to tell them how a similar house in a different part of the country might be worth. Up to date information In order to be useful, information needs to be up to date. In many cases information changes over time and so old or out of date information can be misleading or five you the wrong picture of what is happening. Exams As part of your revision, you have a go at practicing lots of exam questions before the big day and you work your way through the practice papers and model answers that your teacher has given you. However, some of the papers are over five years old. How useful are the model answers for questions such as Ã¢â¬Ëwhich storage device would you recommend? Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is the average size of a hard disk? Ã¢â¬Ë It is well known that things move very quickly in the world of ICT and hardware and software changes rapidly. What was a top-notch computer just three years ago is now probably a very low-spec machine. So the model answers are likely to be out-of-date. Holidays Choosing a holiday can be great fun. And you would probably go to the travel agent to get the latest brochures. Why? Well, because if you used last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s brochures the holiday may not even be available any more. And certainly the prices would be different. So you need up-to-date information House prices Your parents are still thinking of selling their house. They need an idea of how much their house is worth right now. It would be no use to them being told by the estate agent how much their house was worth five years ago. Completeness In order for information to be useful it needs to be complete. If part of the information is missing then you will not be able to make use of it or make accurate decisions. Exams Remember those exam papers that you were doing for revision during your study leave? Your teacher wanted you to work your way through them and check your answers against the model answers. What if you were only given the second half of the model answer and the first half was missing? How useful would it be to you? Weather forecast You still want to plan the family picnic for tomorrow. However when you check the weather forecast you are only told what the weather in the morning will be like. There is nothing about the afternoon. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t really make a decision just based upon what the morning weather is likely to be. DoctorÃ¢â¬â¢s appointment Imagine you are feeling ill and you need to make an appointment to see your doctor. How useful would it be if the receptionist just told you that you could have an appointment at quarter past two? Does she mean today, tomorrow or next week? The information in incomplete. Quality of presentation Information which is presented in a disorganised way or in a manner that is hard to understand will be less useful to you Business data If you were asked to present some information in a business meeting. It is often better to present it graphically. People find it very hard to spot patterns in a table of data, but the same information presented as a graph makes it very easy. Buying a house Your parents want to buy a new house. It is much easier to pick a house if a photograph was available. Your parents can see instantly if the house would appeal to them and whether they would be interested in finding out more. Once they have decided they like the look of the house they would then want more detailed written information. However, giving them the written information first with no idea of what the house looks like would make it difficult for them to get an idea as to whether they would like it. Too mucho or too litle detail For information to be useful you need the right amout of detail. There is a risk of having too much detail which makes the information overwhelming and difficult to extract the bits that you want to know about. Or there might not be enough detail in which case you wont understand the full picture. Example: baking a cake Too much detail| Not enough detail| Ingredients Not only telling you that you need fluor, but telling you all of the different brands of fluor and how the choice of each one would affect the rising of your cake| Ingredients Telling you that you need fluor but not the quantity you will need to weigh ouy| MethodTelling you exactly how many times you need to beat the eggs and for exatly how many seconds you need to fold in the fluor| MethodTelling you to mix the ingredients together but not informing you of the correct order in which to combine them| CookingTelling you the exact amount of minutes that the cake should be baked for every type of oven that is currently for sale| CookingTelling you the temperatura to cook the cake but not how long to leave it in the oven for| Coding of data When you are designing a database system to hold data, one of the first decisions that you will need to make is about how the data will be collected and stored. You already know the term GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out). If you collect data and enter it into the system without careful consideration at the planning stage then the output from your system will be of little use. One of the things that you can consider is to code some or all of your data in order to improve the efficiency of your system. What is coding of data? Any system will need to have data collected, entered and stored. One method of storing data is to assign codes to it. This usually means shortening the original data in an agreed manner. The agreement is between the users of the system. This coding scheme could be part of the training of how to use the system, and it could also be documented within the system for new users. If the coding is completely obvious then there is no such need for formal documentation. For example if a field called Ã¢â¬ËGenderÃ¢â¬â¢ has only two values Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢. It should be obvious from the field name that this refers to Male and Female. Example 1 Original data: Monday; Tuesday; Wednesday; Thursday; Friday Coded data: Mon; Tues; Wed; Thurs; Fri Example 2 Original data: Xtra Large; Large; Medium; Small Coded data: XL; L; M; S Example 3 The above codes are fairly easy for anyone to recognise and understand. Some codes however are more complicated. What do you think the following codes might represent? RG935LR CV183TP The above examples could be postcodes. They represent a street name, a particular part of the street and the town where the street is located. Example 4 How about: SK12BN TR14GN These might be a little bit more difficult because the code is made up from different representative parts. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s have a closer look. The first part represents a piece of clothing, so Ã¢â¬ËSKÃ¢â¬â¢ represented Ã¢â¬ËSkirtÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËTRÃ¢â¬â¢ represented Ã¢â¬ËTrousersÃ¢â¬â¢ The middle part of the code was the dress size. The final part of the code represented a colour, so Ã¢â¬ËBNÃ¢â¬â¢ represented Ã¢â¬ËBrownÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËGNÃ¢â¬â¢ represented Ã¢â¬ËGreenÃ¢â¬â¢. You should be able to see from that information that the first code is a size 12 brown skirt. What piece of clothing would the second code represent? Why might we want to code data? Much of the data that we collected and enter into our systems has some degree of repetition. Speeding up data entry LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take the example of collecting data about a personÃ¢â¬â¢s gender. People can be either Ã¢â¬ËMaleÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢. Whilst these two options are easily understood by all, imagine having to enter the word Ã¢â¬ËMaleÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ into a system many hundreds of times instead. It is a waste of time and effort because no extra information is contained in the full words compared to a single letter. Increase accuracy of data entry The other issue is that no matter how accurate a person is at data entry, at some stage they are likely to make a mistake and might spell Ã¢â¬ËMaleÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËMailÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËFemalÃ¢â¬â¢. This type of mistake will make any results from your database queries unreliable. Instead of entering Ã¢â¬ËMaleÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ you could code the data and instead enter it as Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢. Simply having to enter one letter instead of a possible six will speed up data entry. It will also cut down on the risk of mistakes being made with spelling. Use of validation In our example, the words Ã¢â¬ËMaleÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ have been coded so that they become Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢. When data has been coded it makes it easier to use validation to check if the data entered is sensible. With the example above, the person entering the data could still make a mistake and enter Ã¢â¬ËSÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢. But if you set up validation so that the field will only accept the letters Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ and absolutely nothing else then that should further cut down on possible mistakes. Note that validation can only check if the data is sensible and within reasonable limits, it cannot check whether the data is accurate. Somebody could still enter Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ instead of Ã¢â¬ËMÃ¢â¬â¢. Less storage space required Every letter that you store in your database system will take at least one byte of storage. If you store Ã¢â¬ËFemaleÃ¢â¬â¢ as Ã¢â¬ËFÃ¢â¬â¢ then you will save five bytes of storage space. If the system belongs to a large organisation, there might be many thousands or millions of records stored Ã¢â¬â simply by coding one field, a huge amount of hard disk storage can be saved. Faster searching for data It stands to reason that the smaller the size of your database, the faster it will be to search and produce results. Thus by coding data and keeping the size of the system to a minimum the more time you can save in the long run when running queries. Coding examples In our everyday lives we come across many examples of how coding is used to represent data. Here are just a few more ideas: Country names The name of a country can be represented by two letters. For example: Great Britain Ã¢â¬â GB France Ã¢â¬â FR Canada Ã¢â¬â CA Problems caused by coding data Whilst coding data can bring many benefits it can also lead to some problems. Coarsening of data This means that during the coding process some of the subtle details in the data are lost. Look at the image below: How to cite Data and Information, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Sexual and Racial Tension in Larsen's Passing Clare Kendry and Irene Redfield are the two main characters in Nella Larsen's Passing. We do not learn about the both of them by seeing or hearing the story from a neutral point of view. Rather, we are subject to envision the entire novel from behind the eyes of only one of these characters, Irene. At first, forcing the reader to suspend themselves in only one of these two complex minds may seem like a biased action on the part of the author. However, as we read further into the book, we soon discover that the limited third-person view is necessary to bring both of these figures to life. This is because Irene's perspective thrives off of Clare. Despite the fact that each have heavily contrasting personalities. Irene's vivid but seemingly painful descriptions of Clare only augment the racial and sexual tension that exists between them. From the very first page of the book, it is clear that Irene Redfield's personality clashes with Clare Kendry's. The moment Irene spies the second letter Clare has sent her, dressed up in "Italian paper...out of place and alien" (Larsen 9), it is obvious that there are many differences between these two young women. As the book progresses further, we soon learn more and more why Irene's feelings of resentment towards Clare are justifiable. Growing up, Clare had "never been exactly one of the group" (Larsen 20) and always wanted more out of life. Her desires and light skin eventually landed her in the "other world," passing off as white. Irene finds especially shocking how Clare could just drop her entire heritage like a brick and live with someone who considers African-Americans "black scrimy devils" (Larsen 40). Here we see the first signs of racial and sexual tension that exists between the two women. Irene is upset at Clare not only for completely denying and neglecting her own ra ce, but also for letting herself be drawn to a man who does not appreciate her for who she is. Although Irene sometimes passes herself as white for certain perks in life, such as eating in fancy restaurants or associating with high class people, she still has kept most of her African-American ties in tact by marrying a upper class black man. There is sexual tension existing at this point as well. Sex is a forbidden and terrifying thing for young ladies who are passing. In Clare's case, there is fear. Fear that a black child may be conceived and her secret may be revealed. For Irene, sex is risky. She has set up such a perfect lifestyle with her husband and two kids that another child could threaten to ruin that. As the story continues, we see a roller coaster relationship forming between Clare and Irene. At various points in the book, they are the best of friends and the worst of enemies. However, one omnipresent theme remains throughout the story: the fact that Irene is constantly drawn back to Clare, regardless of what shenanigans she pulls. After her first incident with Clare, Irene vows that "[she] is through with Clare Kendry" (Larsen 31). Yet, it is not too far down the road when Irene once again finds herself drawn back to Clare. And like clockwork, she once again finds herself mortified by Clare's behavior, this time for supposedly having an affair with her husband. There is an obvious reason why Irene is constantly drawn back to Clare. She is sexually attracted and fascinated by her. Every time she talks about Clare, it is in a vivid and almost seductive way. The sexual attraction also goes both ways. Clare longs to return to her roots as a black person and stop living a life of secrecy. She expresses this desire through her allure towards Irene. The hints of sexual tension existing between these two women are peppered throughout the novel: "looking at the woman before her, Irene Redfield had a sudden inexplicable onrush of affectionate feeling..." (Larsen 65), "Clare's ivory face was what it always was, beautiful and caressing..." (Larsen 92). Clare's husband finally confronts her for being black. Even then, Irene is the last one to hold onto Clare before she falls out
Thursday, March 19, 2020
The Persian Empire of Ancient Iran Irans history as a nation of people speaking an Indo-European language did not begin until the middle of the second millennium B.C. Before then, Iran was occupied by peoples with a variety of cultures. There are numerous artifacts attesting to settled agriculture, permanent sun-dried- brick dwellings, and pottery-making from the sixth millennium B.C. The most advanced area technologically was ancient Susiana, present-day Khuzestan Province. By the fourth millennium, the inhabitants of Susiana, the Elamites, were using semipictographic writing, probably learned from the highly advanced civilization of Sumer in Mesopotamia (ancient name for much of the area now known as Iraq), to the west. Sumerian influence in art, literature, and religion also became particularly strong when the Elamites were occupied by, or at least came under the domination of, two Mesopotamian cultures, those of Akkad and Ur, during the middle of the third millennium. By 2000 B.C. the Elamites had become sufficiently unified to destroy the city of Ur. Elamite civilization developed rapidly from that point, and, by the fourteenth century B.C., its art was at its most impressive. Immigration of the Medes and the Persians Small groups of nomadic, horse-riding peoples speaking Indo-European languages began moving into the Iranian cultural area from Central Asia near the end of the second millennium B.C. Population pressures, overgrazing in their home area, and hostile neighbors may have prompted these migrations. Some of the groups settled in eastern Iran, but others, those who were to leave significant historical records, pushed farther west toward the Zagros Mountains. Three major groups are identifiablethe Scythians, the Medes (the Amadai or Mada), and the Persians (also known as the Parsua or Parsa). The Scythians established themselves in the northern Zagros Mountains and clung to a seminomadic existence in which raiding was the chief form of economic enterprise. The Medes settled over a huge area, reaching as far as modern Tabriz in the north and Esfahan in the south. They had their capital at Ecbatana (present-day Hamadan) and annually paid tribute to the Assyrians. The Persians were established in three areas: to the south of Lake Urmia (the tradional name, also cited as Lake Orumiyeh, to which it has reverted after being called Lake Rezaiyeh under the Pahlavis), on the northern border of the kingdom of the Elamites; and in the environs of modern Shiraz, which would be their eventual settling place and to which they would give the name Parsa (what is roughly present-day Fars Province). During the seventh century B.C., the Persians were led by Hakamanish (Achaemenes, in Greek), ancestor of the Achaemenid dynasty. A descendant, Cyrus II (also known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder), led the combined forces of the Medes and the Persians to establish the most extensive empire known in the ancient world. By 546 B.C., Cyrus had defeated Croesus*, the Lydian king of fabled wealth, and had secured control of the Aegean coast of Asia Minor, Armenia, and theÃ Greek coloniesÃ along the Levant. Moving east, he took Parthia (land of the Arsacids, not to be confused with Parsa, which was to the southwest), Chorasmis, and Bactria. He besieged and captured Babylon in 539 and released the Jews who had been held captive there, thus earning his immortalization in the Book of Isaiah. When he died in 529**, Cyruss kingdom extended as far east as the Hindu Kush in present-day Afghanistan. His successors were less successful. Cyruss unstable son, Cambyses II, conquered Egypt but later committed suicide during a revolt led by a priest, Gaumata, who usurped the throne until overthrown in 522 by a member of a lateral branch of the Achaemenid family, Darius I (also known as Darayarahush or Darius the Great). Darius attacked the Greek mainland, which had supported rebellious Greek colonies under his aegis, but as a result of his defeat at theÃ Battle of Marathon in 490Ã was forced to retract the limits of the empire toÃ Asia Minor. The Achaemenids thereafter consolidated areas firmly under their control. It was Cyrus and Darius who, by sound and farsighted administrative planning, brilliant military maneuvering, and a humanistic worldview, established the greatness of the Achaemenids and in less than thirty years raised them from an obscure tribe to a world power. The quality of the Achaemenids as rulers began to disintegrate, however, after the death of Darius in 486. His son and successor, Xerxes, was chiefly occupied with suppressing revolts in Egypt and Babylonia. He also attempted to conquer the Greek Peloponnesus, but encouraged by a victory at Thermopylae, he overextended his forces and suffered overwhelming defeats at Salamis and Plataea. By the time his successor, Artaxerxes I, died in 424, the imperial court was beset by factionalism among the lateral family branches, a condition that persisted until the death in 330 of the last of the Achaemenids, Darius III, at the hands of his own subjects. The Achaemenids were enlightened despots who allowed a certain amount of regional autonomy in the form of the satrapy system. A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government. The twenty satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being theÃ royal roadÃ from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the most remote areas in fifteen days. Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system, however, royal inspectors, the eyes and ears of the king, toured the empire and reported on local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals. The language in greatest use in the empire was Aramaic. Old Persian was the official language of the empire but was used only for inscriptions and royal proclamations. Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system. Trade was extensive, and under theÃ AchaemenidsÃ there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far reaches of the empire. As a result of this commercial activity, Persian words for typical items of trade became prevalent throughout theÃ Middle EastÃ and eventually entered the English language; examples are, bazaar, shawl, sash, turquoise, tiara, orange, lemon, melon, peach, spinach, and asparagus. Trade was one of the empires main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute. Other accomplishments of Dariuss reign included codification of the data, a universal legal system upon which much of later Iranian law would be based, and construction of a new capital at Persepolis, where vassal states would offer their yearly tribute at the festival celebrating the spring equinox. In its art and architecture, Persepolis reflected Dariuss percept ion of himself as the leader of conglomerates of people to whom he had given a new and single identity. The Achaemenid art and architecture found there is at once distinctive and also highly eclectic. The Achaemenids took the art forms and the cultural and religious traditions of many of the ancient Middle Eastern peoples and combined them into a single form. This Achaemenid artistic style is evident in the iconography of Persepolis, which celebrates the king and the office of the monarch. Envisioning a new world empire based on a fusion of Greek and Iranian culture andÃ ideals,Ã Ã¢â¬â¹Alexander the GreatÃ of Macedon accelerated the disintegration of the Achaemenid Empire. He was first accepted as leader by the fractious Greeks in 336 B.C. and by 334 had advanced to Asia Minor, an Iranian satrapy. In quickÃ succession,Ã he took Egypt, Babylonia, and then, over the course of two years, the heart of theÃ Achaemenid EmpireSusa, Ecbatana, and Persepolisthe last of which he burned. Alexander married Roxana (Roshanak), the daughter of the most powerful of the Bactrian chiefs (Oxyartes, who revolted in present-day Tadzhikistan), and in 324 commanded his officers and 10,000 of his soldiers to marry Iranian women. The mass wedding, held at Susa, was a model of Alexanders desire to consummate the union of the Greek and Iranian peoples. These plans ended in 323 B.C., however, when Alexander was struck with fever and died in Babylon, leaving no heir. His empire was d ivided among four of his generals. Seleucus, one of these generals, who became ruler of Babylon in 312, gradually reconquered most of Iran. Under Seleucuss son, Antiochus I, many Greeks entered Iran, and Hellenistic motifs in art, architecture, and urban planning became prevalent. Although the Seleucids faced challenges from theÃ Ptolemies of EgyptÃ and from the growing power of Rome, the main threat came from the province of Fars (Partha to the Greeks). Arsaces (of the seminomadic Parni tribe), whose name was used by all subsequent Parthian kings, revolted against the Seleucid governor in 247 B.C. and established a dynasty, the Arsacids, or Parthians. During the second century, the Parthians were able to extend their rule to Bactria, Babylonia, Susiana, and Media, and, under Mithradates II (123-87 B.C.), Parthian conquests stretched from India to Armenia. After the victories of Mithradates II, the Parthians began to claim descent from both the Greeks and the Achaemenids. They spoke a language similar to that of the Achaemenids, used the Pahlavi script, and established an administrative system based on Achaemenid precedents. Meanwhile, Ardeshir, son of the priest Papak, who claimed descent from the legendary hero Sasan, had become the Parthian governor in the Achaemenid home province of Persis (Fars). In A.D. 224 he overthrew the last Parthian king and established the Sassanid dynasty, which was to last 400 years. The Sassanids established an empire roughly within the frontiers achieved by the AchaemenidsÃ [c, 550-330 B.C.;Ã with the capital at Ctesiphon. The Sassanids consciously sought to resuscitate Iranian traditions and to obliterate Greek cultural influence. Their rule was characterized by considerable centralization, ambitious urban planning, agricultural development, and technological improvements. Sassanid rulers adopted the title of shahanshah (king of kings), as sovereigns over numerous petty rulers, known asÃ shahrdars. Historians believe that society was divided into four classes: the priests, warriors, secretaries, and commoners. The royal princes, petty rulers, great landlords, and priests together constituted a privileged stratum, and the social system appears to have been fairly rigid. Sassanid rule and the system of social stratification were reinforced by Zoroastrianism, which became the state religion. The Zoroastrian priesthood became immensely powerful. The head of the priestly class, theÃ mobadanÃ mobad, along with the military commander, theÃ eranÃ spahbod, and the head of the bureaucracy, were among the great men of the state. Rome, with its capital atÃ Constantinople, had replaced Greece as Irans principal Western enemy, and hostilities between the two empires were frequent. Shahpur I (241-72), son and successor of Ardeshir, waged successful campaigns against the Romans and in 260 even took the emperor Valerian prisoner. Chosroes I (531-79), also known as Anushirvan the Just, is the most celebrated of the Sassanid rulers. He reformed the tax system and reorganized the army and the bureaucracy, tying the army more closely to the central government than to local lords. His reign witnessed the rise of theÃ dihqansÃ (literally, village lords), the petty landholding nobility who were the backbone of later Sassanid provincial administration and the tax collection system. Chosroes was a great builder, embellishing his capital, founding new towns, and constructing new buildings. Under his auspices, too, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. The reign of Chosroes II (591-628) was characterized by the wasteful splendor and lavishness of the court. Toward the end of hisÃ reignÃ Chosroes IIs power declined. In renewed fighting with the Byzantines, he enjoyed initial successes, captured Damascus, and seized the Holy Cross in Jerusalem. But counterattacks by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius brought enemy forces deep into Sassanid territory. Years of warfare exhausted both the Byzantines and the Iranians. The later Sassanids were further weakened by economic decline, heavy taxation, religious unrest, rigid social stratification, the increasing power of the provincial landholders, and a rapid turnover of rulers. These factors facilitated the Arab invasion in the seventh century. Data as of December 1987Source: Library of Congress Country Studies Corrections *Jona LenderingÃ points out that a 547/546 date for the fall of Croesus is based on theÃ Nabonidus ChronicleÃ whose reading is uncertain. Rather thanÃ CroesusÃ it may have been the ruler of Uratu. Lendering says the fall of Lydia should be listed as the 540s. **He also advises that cuneiform sources start to mention Cambyses as sole ruler in August 530, so the date of his death the following year is wrong.
Monday, March 2, 2020
17 Cartoon-Inspired College Party Dance Moves In this post youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find a ton of animated characters getting their groove on. Each of the 20 selections comes with a YouTube video showing them in action. Get ready for everything from an out of control ogre dance party to colorful birds doing the Zamba. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for some good dance moves inspired by your favorite animated personalities, this is definitely the right place. Enjoy! 1. The Giggity Giggity Quagmire may be perverted and have one of the skinniest necks in ever drawn, but he sure knows how to impress the ladies with those moves of his. 2. Garfield Getting Busy Modern Garfield is truly an animal on the suburban dance floor. No house cat does it like he can. And, when you throw Odie into mix things get interesting. 3. Jungle Book Swingdance ItÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to believe, but you can actually learn a fair amount from swinging orangutans and big grey jungle bears. You know, the bear necessities. 4. B the B Ballroom Dancing In this classic, Beauty and the Beast really take you back to old school ballroom dancing. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something so graceful and endearing about it. 5. Genie-Style Dancing The Genie from Aladdin is one amazing hipster who can not only sing and brew up a magical blue storm of personalities and impressions, but he can really cut a rug! 6. Timon and Pumbaa Hula Dance Because sometimes the best way to tempt people is through a tantalizing South American style Hula dance. 7. KronkÃ¢â¬â¢s New Groove Kronk not only has one of the most widely recognized voice in animated films, but he can also throw that muscle bound physique around with true grace. There you have it ladies and gentlemen, a genuine gauntlet of animated dancing and dance moves that should inspire you to boogie. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s so common to see dancing in animated films, especially at the ending. 8.The Infamous Dancing Frog Ã¢â¬Å"Hello my baby, hello my darling, hello my ragtop gal!Ã¢â¬ He may be sporting a traditional English top hot and kicking his feet like heÃ¢â¬â¢s on Broadway, but this short dance number is timeless. 9. Megamind Dougie Megamind has a certain way about his moves. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re a mix of alternative hip hop with sprinkles of heavy metal on top. 10. Gru-Style Disco Who says that incredibly fat guys with tiny bald heads and scrawny legs canÃ¢â¬â¢t go all Saturday Night Fever? Gru knows how to wow a crowd of minions like no one else. 11. The Spanish Buzz Jessie Dance WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t it be cool if we all had a Spanish dance mode like Buzz? You just flip it and suddenly youÃ¢â¬â¢re dancing in a local bar on the coast of Spain. 12. The Madagascar Mix LetÃ¢â¬â¢s talk about polka dot afros and dancing circus animals shall we? ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something for everyone in Madagascar. 13. Robots Doing the Junk! What do you get when you mix James brown jazz with a bunch of robot funk? Junk! The twang really gets those shoulders moving and the hip bones swinging. 14. Uncontrollable Ogre Dancing Probably one of the funniest moments in animated dance history. With the Piper at the helm, these poor ogres canÃ¢â¬â¢t help themselves. A truly memorable dance scene with plenty of ideas. 15. SidÃ¢â¬â¢s Wooga Wooga Scene Just in case you need plenty of repetition to get this sequence down, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s over 10 solid minutes of SidÃ¢â¬â¢s Wooga Wooga. 16. The Hardcore Penguin Happy Feet If youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to find a couple new hip hop inspired moves, see what the penguins are doing these days. Remember, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re some of the smartest animals on earth alongside Dolphins, but we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find any dancing dolphin clips. 17. Birdy Zamba As one of the dance capitals of the world, Rio and the many tropical birds that reside there have plenty to teach. What did we miss? If you know of an epic dance move from an animated film, new or old, please share it with us!
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Why is College So Expensive - Research Paper Example Tuition, books and housing are enormously expensive and take the biggest bite out of the higher education budget but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t end there. It never ends. There are lab fees, dorm needs including computer, clothes and stereo, commuting costs, parking fees, tutoring and food. Forget entertainment expenses, no money left for that. College is expensive, very much so but just how expensive and why? According to experts, the cost to attend a four-year public university is about $16,000. That includes tuition, housing and general fees but not books. A private university is more than double that amount. Add to that other expenses such as dorm room accessories, electronics and clothing. Then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s commuting which includes gas, maintenance and parking fess which can total up to $500 per semester. Tickets for outdated stickers handed out by the campus police push the cost higher. Getting a little tutoring help for that physics test will run about $30 per hour. The Ã¢â¬Å"luxuryÃ ¢â¬ of living on campus costs more than anyone can possibly anticipate. Ã¢â¬Å"The main reason why people who go to public universities end up in debt, is not the tuition, but the living away from home expenses, which at a public university, are three or four times more than tuition.Ã¢â¬ (Hacker, 2010) The price of books is another expense that is always higher than anticipated, shockingly so. The cost of books sometimes determines a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s major. The difference in price of books can total $1200 depending on the field of study. (Beeman, 2011). There is a legitimate justification for why college textbooks cost more than paperbacks at discount book stores. Producing a new textbook is often very expensive. The market for these books is limited and has become increasingly so. In days past there were more buyers for new textbooks. Publishers could, therefore, distribute production expenses over a larger number of buyers. The relatively recent expansion of the rental and u sed textbook market has diminished the number of new books sold which has kept the price of new editions inflated. Publishers now generate updated editions. In this way they sell more books which acts to spread the production costs over more buyers. The total cost of college textbooks has actually fallen recently even as the price for new books has risen. (Weston, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"Student spending on textbooks has been decreasing since 2006 because of the rise of electronic books, rentals and the used book marketÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Why,Ã¢â¬ 2011). During the 2010-11 scholastic year the average amount spent on books at a four-year college was $534. During the 2005-06 year that amount was $644. Students spend more on gasoline and going to the movies during the academic year and twice the amount on cell-phone use as they do on book expenditures. (Weston, 2011). Tuition costs are high for many reasons. Colleges have expenses which may or may not be obvious to the casual observer. The high-e nd salaries paid to employees have risen. The expense of employing well educated people began to increase substantially about 30 years ago for every industry. Colleges are an industry that cannot readily cut back on labor and much of its work force is well educated by necessity. (Goldstein, 2010). Salaries of faculty and supportive staff account for the largest piece of the college expense pie. The second highest expense can be classified as building maintenance which includes paying the electric bill, ongoing construction, cleaning and furnishing classrooms, libraries, gyms, labs, dorms, student centers and supplying computers, software, IT needs and books. (Trachtenberg, 2011) Colleges have been allocating more for support